Title IX and SBU Women


1976 Evaluation     Gender Equity Plan     Gender Equity, 2004     NCAA vs. Smith

Title IX Background:
    - For more information on Title IX click here.  
    - For a online copy of "Title IX: 25 Years of Progress," click here.


SBU Title IX Self-Evaluation, June 1, 1976 
The University underwent a self-evaluation in 1976, below are excerpts from the chapters of the evaluation.

1974-1975 Women's Basketball team.

Chapter I- Office of Admissions:
    - Staff of 6 full-time workers; three female ( 2 secretaries, 1 Assistant Director of Admissions).
    - Staff of 6 part-time student workers, all female.
    - Recruitment: Individual secondary schools- 159 public or private co-ed schools, 13 private male schools, 18
     private female schools.
    - "At present, no priority is given to whether the candidate is male or female.  Before 1971, female resident
     students were limited due to available dormitory space.  Presently, however, the percentage of acceptable
     candidates (54% male and 46% female) is closely proportionate to the percentage of resident spaces available
     (52% male and 47.6% female).
    - Institutional aid: "...all allocations to prospective candidates and upperclass persons are made on the basis 
     of both the financial resources of the student and his/her family and the student's scholastic achievement." 

Chapter II- Athletic Department:
    - Men's intercollegiate program: 9 varsity sports (baseball, basketball, swimming, soccer, golf, tennis, track,
     rifle, cross-country) with about 160 men.  Junior varsity soccer and basketball were also available.
    - Women's intercollegiate program: 5 varsity sports (Basketball, swimming, field hockey, volleyball, tennis)
     with about 82 women.  No junior varsity programs were available.
    - Intramurals: 22 sports for men; 5 for women.  "Selection of sports or deletion of sports in both programs is
     determined by demonstrated interest and participation."
    - Men out number women 2:1, therefore offerings are ok with respect to undergrad enrollment ratios.
    - "It should be noted that equal expenditure is not required under the law, but that equal opportunity is a
     desire outcome."
    - Table of costs for Male versus Female equipment supplies cost:

  Male Female
Tennis $ 300 $ 200
Swimming   700   540
Basketball   3,000   230
Volleyball   --   240
Field Hockey   --   300
Soccer   2,000   --
Track   400   --
Cross-country   560   --
Baseball   1,190   -- 
Rifle   --   --
Golf   250   --
Intramurals   3,000   450
Medical Supplies   1,800   700
  $ 13,200 total $ 2,660 total

                                - Women's teams will be getting new, better uniforms in the 1976-77 academic year.
                                - The University is working to get better practice equipment for Women as Title IX deadline
                                  draws near.

A 1963 Women's Basketball Club team photo.

Chapter III - Financial Aid Office:
    - Three of three staff members are female.
    - "In selecting needy students to receive financial assistance, the University shall place primary emphasis upon
         their character, future promise, and academic achievement."

Chapter IV - Offices of Student Development:
    - "Students may live off campus if they are 21 years of age."
    - Bonaville, a "mobile home complex will be restricted to men in September 1976, but this is regarded as a
         temporary measure.  The Housing Office projects that by September 1977 women will again be assigned to
    - Women's Dorms: Falconio, Loughlen, Floors in Francis and Devereux
    - Men's Dorms: Robinson and Shay, Floors in Francis and Devereux
    - More men have elected to live on campus than women, therefore, the University will offer University property
        on Union Street to 22 senior men to help ease the housing problem.
    - September, 1976: improvements to Devereux Hall include fixing bathrooms on women occupied floors.
    - A survey was sent to all University clubs to determine any sexual biases.  Out of 30 clubs, 27 returned the
                - Women's Council's response: "Since Title IX's main purpose is to eliminate sex discrimination and the
                     basis for Title IX can be found in ending discrimination against women, the one student organization
                     on the St. Bonaventure campus, which, ironically, will be hurt the most is the Women's Council."
                - Suggestions were given to the Women's Council on how to solve this problem; including filing a 501a
                    tax exemption form and changing the Council's name to Greek but leaving membership open to any
                    female student without requiring a pledge.

SBU Archives. Title IX 1976- Athletics, 12-110-377

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Gender Equity Plan

    - "...providing equitable intercollegiate programs for male and female student-athletes...utilizing the Achieving
         Gender Equity Manuel distributed by the NCAA...established a plan...to ensure equitable treatment of all
         students participating in intercollegiate athletics."
Intended Results:
    - "...establish gender equity as a paramount institutional objective.  Regular monitoring and oversight will be
         undertaken by the Director of Athletics, Associate Athletic Director/SWA and Compliance, who also serves
         as the department's Title IX officer, and the University Athletics Committee (UAC)."
Equity 2000: General
    - "Beginning with the 1992-93 academic year, the Department of Athletics introduced a plan for addressing
         gender equity concerns.  The original plan covered a five year period..., the plan has been extended through
         the 1999-2000 academic year.  Below are listed the yearly gender equity steps the Department of Athletics
         has undertaken."
    - "Men's and women's basketball scholarship budgets adjusted to represent identical financial aid allocations;
    - Senior Women's Administrator hired;
    - Practice time and facility usage allocated on an equitable basis;
    - Sports information staff travel with both men's and women's basketball; and
    - Administrative travel provided for both men's and women's basketball."
    - "Sports sponsorship adjusted to provide seven varsity sports for men and seven varsity sports for women;
    - Overall men's and women's scholarship allocations identical;
    - All operating budgets exceptions men's and women's basketball are adjusted to provide identical amounts to
         men's and women's sports;
    - Secretarial support for men's and women's basketball allocated equally.  One full-time secretary to split work
         day equally (e.g., morning with men's basketball, afternoons with women's basketball)"
    - "Survey of interests and abilities of undergraduate student population undertaken;
    - Women's soccer, volleyball and softball offices relocated and upgraded"
    - "Courtesy car program adjusted to provide equal distribution of automobiles to men's and women's 
        basketball staffs (e.g., three cars to each program);
    - Head women's soccer coach position upgraded to full-time; and
    - Equal number of sports for men and women with full-time coaches
    - "Media guides for all sports provided on an equal basis; and
    - Schedule cards and posters for all sports identical.
    - Departmental Gender Equity coordinator duties assigned
    - Women's softball dugouts constructed"
    - "Women's basketball operating budget adjusted to compare with men's basketball operating budget; and
    - Salary adjustments for women's basketball coaches"
    - "Survey of interests and abilities of undergraduate students to be completed."

    - Mascot at equal numbers of men's and women's contests
    - Cheerleaders perform at men's and women's basketball games
    - Newspaper, radio, and television coverage of men's and women's sports is regularly solicited
    - Publications: Press releases, publicity initiatives and other written materials are comparable for all sports.

Participation Rates:
    - General: "During the 1993-94 academic year, St. Bonaventure University adjusted the sports sponsored at the
         intercollegiate level.  Since that time, intercollegiate sports participation has been comparable to the
         distribution of male and female general student body populations."
    - Undergraduate enrollment distributions, 1994-95 and 1995-96

1994-95 Gender     1995-96 Gender    
  Men 870 49%   Men 857 50%
  Women 901 51%   Women 846 50%
  total 1771     total 1703  

    - Numbers and percentages of student-athletes by sport:


Men's Sports Number of Participants Women's Sports Number of Participants
Baseball 32 Basketball 14
Basketball 15 Cross Country 8
Cross Country 10 Soccer 23
Golf 9 Softball 18
Soccer 23 Swimming and Diving 18
Swimming and Diving 22 Tennis 9
Tennis 15 Volleyball 13
total 126 (56%) total 101 (44%)


Men's Sports Number of Participants Women's Sports Number of Participants
Baseball 33 Basketball 15
Basketball 14 Cross Country 15
Cross Country 11 Soccer 22
Golf 9 Softball 19
Soccer 19 Swimming and Diving 17
Swimming and Diving 23 Tennis 9
Tennis 11 Volleyball 16
total 120 (52%) total 113 (48%)

    - "For the two year period after the adjustment in sports sponsorship, the St. Bonaventure University
         intercollegiate athletics participation rates are substantially proportionate to the rules of enrollment within
         the general student population.  Utilizing the permissible variances from proportionality specified in the
         April, 1994, NCAA publication Achieving Gender Equity, St. Bonaventure University is with in the 5
         percentage point variance."

Academic Support Services:
    - "All academic support programming (e.g., access to Gus Galasso Academic Support Center, tutors, access to
         Academic Coordinator) is provided equally to all student-athletes."

Athletics Financial Assistance:

Scholarships for 1995-96

Men's Sports   Women's Sports  
Basketball 13 full scholarships Basketball 14 full scholarships
Baseball 9 tuition scholarships Cross Country 1 tuition scholarship
Cross Country 1 tuition  Soccer 8 tuition
Golf 1 tuition  Softball 6.3 tuition
Soccer 8 tuition  Swimming and Diving 1 tuition
Swimming and Diving 11.3 tuition  Tennis 3.44 tuition
Tennis 3.44 tuition  Volleyball 8 tuition

    - "...the records demonstrated identical scholarship budgets for men's and women's...programs"

Scheduling of Games and Practice Times:
    - "For similar sports: all intercollegiate programs have schedules that are basically equivalent."  Deviations
            are not more than 1 contest more or less.  "Evidence of preferential treatment in scheduling of games and
            practice times is nonexistent."


Housing and Dining Facilities and Services: 
    - "Student-athletes are treated in the same manner as the general student population...All students utilize the same dining options, and the University does not sponsor a 'training table.'"   

    - 14 sports total (Men: Basketball, Baseball, Cross Country, Soccer, Swimming and Diving, Tennis, and Golf;
        Women: Basketball, Cross Country, Soccer, Swimming and Diving, Tennis, Softball, and Volleyball).
    - Men's and Women's basketball have the NCAA maximum number of coaches (1 Head Coach, 2 Full-time
        Assistant Coaches, and 1 restricted earnings coach).
    - Six other sports have full-time coaches (Men: Soccer, Swimming and Diving, Baseball; Women: Soccer, 
        Swimming and Diving, Volleyball).
    - Men's and Women's tennis shares a coach.
    - Part-time coaches include: Men's cross country and golf; and Women's cross country and softball.
    - Compensation and experience of Head Coaches:

Men Salary

NCAA Div. I; Head or Assistant experience

Women Salary

NCAA Div. I; Head or Assistant experience

Basketball $90,000 16 years Basketball $40,000 5 years
Cross Country $-- 3 Cross Country $-- 3
Soccer $25,000 8 Soccer $20,000 3
Tennis $11,250 4 Tennis $11,250 4
Baseball $21,000 13 Volleyball $22,500 6
Golf $1,750 4 Softball $5,000 4
Swimming and Diving $25,000 7 Swimming and Diving $27,250 8

                        - "In all sports other than men's and women's basketball, the experience and compensation of
                             coaches is comparable."

    - Conclusions: "The coaching opportunities for male and female student-athletes are equivalent in almost every
        sport.  Men's and women's basketball coaching positions show a significant disparity in experience and
        salaries for the men's and women's Head Coaches.  The University has recognized this disparity, and has
        outlined corrective action for the future in the Equity 2000 plan.

Locker Rooms, Practice, and Competitive Facilities:
    - "During the summer of 1997, and exclusive women's basketball locker room will be constructed.  The locker
        room that is currently shared with women's soccer will become a women's soccer and softball locker room."
    - "All practice and competitive facilities are comparable with the exception of the softball field.  Dugouts are
        scheduled in the Equity 2000 plan..."
    - "Only minor discrepancies exist, and a schedule to address the needs is in place.  Complete compliance in this
        area will be realized within the next 24 months."

Medical and Training Facilities and Services:
    - "...provide all student-athletes, male and female, scholarship or walk-on, starter or reserve, the highest level of
        medical and training support possible." 
    - "The weight room and training room services [are open to] all student-athletes, no priority system is in place...
        and both men's and women's basketball have priority use in the weight room."
    - Conclusions: "Pre-game operations in this area are identical for all student-athletes."

Travel and Per Diem:
    - "The modes of transportation for all sports other than men's and women's basketball are typically vans from
        the university motor pool...men's basketball travels more frequently by airplane than women's basketball for
        similar trips.  This discrepancy is addressed under the Equity 2000 section, and equitable travel and per
        diem allowances are projected."
    - Conclusions: "This institution has a plan for achieving equity in this area."

Recruitment of Student-Athletes:
    - "All teams are provided an allocation of complimentary rooms for recruiting at a local hotel.  Room
        allocations are:

Men's Sport Number of Rooms Women's Sport Number of Rooms


Basketball 7
Soccer 7 Soccer 7
Swimming and Diving 7 Swimming and Diving 7
Tennis 3 Tennis 3
Baseball 6 Softball 6
Cross Country 1 Cross Country 1
Golf 2 Volleyball 6





    - "Only two (2) sports, men's and women's basketball, have access to courtesy automobiles.  Both programs
        have three (3) automobiles available."
    - "Men's basketball and women's basketball recruiting budgets have not compared favorable.  The
        institutional equity plan addresses this disparity, and projects compliance."
    - Conclusion: "With the plan to address recruiting funding deficiencies for women's basketball in place, this
        area has been satisfactorily addressed."


SBU Archives, Athletics- Gender Equity Plan, 12-110-325

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Gender Equity Report, August 2004

Athletic Financial Assistance:
    - For 2002-2003 the "University awarded 37.27 scholarship equivalencies to male student-athletes and 38.34    
        female student-athletes.  In sheer numbers, 82 male student-athletes representing an expenditure of $875,736,
        received athletically-related student aid, as compared to 95 female student-athletes, with an expenditure of
    - "...Men's basketball is the only sport funded at the NCAA maximum limit.  Women's basketball, along with all
        of our non-revenue sports, does not award scholarships at the NCAA maximum number allowed."
    - "Still the University is meeting the goal of achieving gender equity as it relates to participants, dollars
        committed, and scholarships awarded...at this time, we are pleased with our progress in this area."

Accommodation of Interests and Abilities:
    - From a survey of sample students, spring 2004:
        - "Given your own personal interest, are you satisfied by the current intercollegiate sports offerings?"
        - A 6-1 margin answered yes.
        - "Almost half of those surveyed answered positively to the question, 'Are there any sports not currently
            offered by St. Bonaventure University at the intercollegiate level that you believe should be offered?'"
        - The most requested sport was women's volleyball, the second was football.

Equipment and Supplies:
    - Some coaches are upset with the budget allotments. 
    - For the 2002-2003 season $59,243 was budgeted to men's teams while $49,400 was budgeted to women's teams.
    - The reason stated for this difference were the financial hardships of the 1990s, which made for little funding in
        the early 2000s. 

Scheduling of Games and Practice Times:
    - Nine teams total need to use the Reilly Center (RC), however men's and women's basketball have priority over
        the the non-revenue sports when they are in season.
    - Improvements to the RC must be made; a list of general improvements:
         - "An outdoor tennis facility for men's and women's tennis teams"
            - "An indoor practice facility for several sports."
            - "An artificial turf field, primarily for women's lacrosse, but also to be utilized by baseball, softball, and 
                soccer teams."
- Additional locker room space is also needed for visiting teams, whose locker room space is currently, 
        "barely adequate".
    - "Locker room facilities of the non-revenue sports teams must be upgraded."

Travel and Per Diem Allowance:
- "In academic year 2002-2003, the University spent $314,517 on team travel and per diem for men's sports, and
        $230,234 on women's sports.  The majority of money was spent on men's basketball ($168,792).  This apparent
        discrepancy is related primarily to differences in schedules and the geographic distribution and number of
        away games.  In comparable sports, budget expenditures were substantially equitable, once factors such as
        geographic distribution and number of away games and sizes of squads are taken into consideration."

- Discrepancies are present.
    - "Overall, the University spends $603,401 on men's sport program salaries and $300,082 on women's sport
        program salaries (2002-2003 figures).  Benefits for each are $110,914 (men) and $73,547 (women).  The majority
        of the expenditures can be traced to men's basketball coaches' salaries and benefits.  Part of the inequality is
        attributed to the costs of running a Division I basketball program at the men's and women's level; part, too, is
        attributable to the greater longevity of coaches of men's and women's teams."

- "The majority of publicity efforts are focused on men's basketball and women's basketball."

Recruitment of Student-Athletes:
- Is "dominated by men's and women's basketball.
    - 2002-2003 men's basketball budget was $24,292 out of a total budget for men's sports of $32,045.
    - 2002-2003 women's basketball budget was $26,200 out of a total budget for women's sports of $32,651.

Findings/ Plans of Corrective Action:
- Survey of coaches concerning gender equality status had a 100% response rate.
    - "Overall, the survey...showed our program to be gender-equitable...such as number of scholarships, access to
        playing and practice facilities...but we - and the coaches - did note three specific areas of gender inequality.
        Those areas are: coaches salaries, secretarial support and locker room facilities."

Analysis of three areas for improvement:

Coaches Salaries:
- "Situation as it exists now: the most glaring discrepancy" is salaries for the heads of men's and women's
        basketball along with assistant coaches.
    - "Historical perspective: Men's basketball has always been the marquee program at St. Bonaventure University,
        both in terms of revenue and attendance.  Women's basketball was swept into Division I as a result of NCAA
        regulations and, though it continues to climb in prestige, has not yet reached the level of the men's program."
    - Recent coaching changes on both sides has made the problem better and worse.  
    - "Plan of corrective action: The Director of Athletics presented an educational informational session to the Board
        of Trustees in a June 2004 meeting."
    - The Department hopes to use, "contributions so that we can then use those funds to level the fiscal playing
        field between the two programs."
    - Title Responsible: Director of Athletics; Development Officer for Athletics
    - Projected time frame: "To be within 25% of compatibility by the year 2007."
Secretarial Support Services:
-Situation as it exists now: Men's basketball has a secretary while women's basketball has none.
    - Historical perspective: The two teams used to share a secretary, changes occurred over time and women's 
        basketball opted not to have a secretary and divert those funds.  However, the team would now like a 
    - Plan of corrective action: "Because of shifting priorities and realignment within the University structure, we
        anticipate this situation to be addressed without any budgetary impact."
    - Title of Position Responsible: Director of Athletics; Senior Associate Athletics Director; Associate Athletic
        Director for Internal Operations; Women's Basketball coach.
    - Time frame: This is "dependent upon internal University realignments, ...expect...by January 2005."
Locker Room Facilities:
- Situation as it exists now: The issue is the quality of the men's basketball locker room and the women's 
        basketball locker room.
    - Historical perspective: This was not the case four years ago, when the women's locker room had an upgrade.  
        However, in 2001, the men's basketball locker room got "revamped" and is now ahead of the women's 
        locker room.
    - Plan of corrective action: "We will be seeking capital contributions for the upgrade of the women's basketball
        locker room."
    - Title of Position Responsible: Director of Athletics; Development Officer for Athletics; Associate Athletic 
        Director for Internal Operations.
    - Project time frame: Equitable by start of the 2006 season.

- "While strides have been made in the area of gender equity since our last report we acknowledge there needs
        to be continued vigilance."


SBU Archives- Gender Equity Plan 12-110-325

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NCAA vs. Smith, February 23, 1999

A former St. Bonaventure student was involved in Title IX court case that rose to the US Supreme Court.  Renee Smith was an SBU undergraduate, and had played volleyball for the University from 1991-1993.  Smith wanted to continue her eligibility at her next two schools, however, the NCAA denied her request to play volleyball as a graduate student at Hofstra University and the University of Pittsburgh.  According to the NCAA, graduate students can only play varsity sports at the institution they attended as an undergraduate.
    Smith then decided to sue under Title IX, because more men had received waivers to play as graduate students at another university than women had.  The court dismissed her complaint and an appeal was issued.
    The appeal was a success and the case was reinstated on the point that the NCAA could be said to get Federal monetary assistance due to the fact that member schools receive Federal support and the NCAA makes an income from these member schools.  The case then rose to the US Supreme Court, where the ruling was in favor of the NCAA.  Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg stated, "that entities receiving Federal assistance, whether directly or indirectly through an intermediary, are recipients with in the meaning of Title IX.  But entities that simply benefit economically from Federal assistance received by others are not."

1988 Women's Volleyball team.

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